Английский язык - Книга для учителя 8 класс О. В. Афанасьева - 2015 год
Аудиокурс к рабочей тетради - Приложения
Script 1 to Exercise 1. Listen to the interviews and say what the interviewed people do for their living.
A: Miss Burton, let me congratulate you on your success in this international competition.
B: Thank you.
A: Do you mind my asking you a few questions?
B: No, not at all.
A: Is this the first time you have won such a prestigious contest?
B: No, it isn’t. Our team came first in this competition in Vienna last year, so this is the second time. And this year’s competition was a lot more difficult.
A: Really? Why?
B: All the teams came very well prepared. Also we had to perform many more complicated tasks than last year. For example, one of my models had short curly hair and it took a great deal of effort to make her look glamorous.
A: And the result was wonderful. You got the highest marks in that competition.
B: My teammate, Jack Perry, was the best in creating a casual hairdo. My other teammate, Jenny Flint, showed very good results in hairstyling.
A: Well, I’d like to congratulate you and your teammates again. Best of luck for the future.
A: Miss Holly, as far as I know, the new medicine has proved rather effective. Did you expect such good results from the preparation?
B: Oh, well, some things can be predicted while experimenting with various substances, but an experiment is an experiment and in science you can get quite unexpected results.
A: I can’t follow one or two of the things you make in your report. Would you mind answering a few questions?
B: No, I don’t mind.
A: What effect can the results of this experiment have on the way the illness is treated?
B: I’m not sure that sick people would be absolutely cured but, at least, the development of the illness could be stopped and I hope that no complications would set in.
A: Can the medicine be given to children or is it only for adults?
B: It depends on the dosages. But babies and nursing mothers should be excluded.
A: Miss West, may I ask you what made you choose this career?
B: I’ve always been fond of children. I have a younger brother and a five-year-old sister. I enjoy playing with them and teaching them.
A: You have a group of three-year-olds, as far as I know. Aren’t they too young to be taught?
B: When I say “teach”, I don’t mean that I put them behind their desks and ask them to read from their books. I teach them through play.
A: Could you give me an example?
B: Oh, if I had to teach my children the ABC, I would teach them an “ABC” song and ask them to sing with it along.
A: I see. Is your job a difficult one?
B: I love my job. Most of the children in my group are lovely happy kids. What I find difficult is dealing with some of their parents.
A: How long have you been working here, Mr Sellinger?
B: Oh, this is my twenty-fifth year at this university and my twenty-ninth year in the profession.
A: Over this long period have you seen a lot of changes in your profession?
B: What we used to do twenty-five years ago and what we are doing now are poles apart. In those days my job mostly consisted of looking for books on the shelves and giving them out to readers. Now my job is more concerned with advising the readers what books to choose. We are very well equipped. We have computers in the catalogue room and in the reading room, as well as copying machines and other wonders of modern technology.
A: Mr Sellinger, does that mean that a person in your profession should now be better qualified for the job?
B: I think so. One should know what is being published on certain subjects all over the world. And one should be very good at working on the computer.
A: What are the things that don’t change then?
B: We still have to work with people and that means being patient, understanding and helpful.
Script 2 to Exercise 2. Listen to the text “Dr Elizabeth” and mark the sentences below true, false or not stated.
Elizabeth Blackwell was one of the first women doctors. In the 19th century this profession was not associated with women and all qualified doctors in Europe and the USA were men. In those years it was very difficult for girls to become medical students and very few of them could find a job as a doctor in hospitals. Elizabeth Blackwell was one of them.
She was born in England in 1821. At the age of eleven she came to America with her family. The Blackwells settled in Ohio. When Elizabeth became a young woman, she went to Kentucky to teach. There she nursed an elderly friend through a lasting illness, and decided to become a doctor.
After graduating from medical school, Dr Blackwell could find no American hospital to work in, so she went to France. She wanted to become a surgeon. Again, finding no hospital that would take a woman doctor, she entered a French hospital as a nursing student. Elizabeth worked long hours making beds, washing patients and scrubbing floors. But she watched operations whenever she had a chance.
While caring for a baby who had an eye infection, Elizabeth too became ill. After suffering for many months she recovered to find that she had lost the sight of one eye. Her chance of becoming a surgeon was gone. But just when Elizabeth was most discouraged, she received an invitation to study at St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London. When she returned to the United States, Dr Elizabeth founded the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. She died in 1910.
Today, the New York Infirmary treats over 30 000 patients yearly. And its staff of physicians has grown from two when Dr Blackwell began her work to more than 500 women and men.
Script 3 to Exercise 1. Listen to the interviews and write answers to the questions.
A: Mr Swift, my name is John Richards. I’m writing an article about schools for the paper. May I ask you a few questions?
B: Yes, certainly. Go ahead.
A: How long have you been the Headmaster of Southwark College?
B: Let me see... I took this position about seven or eight years ago. But before I did, I had been a schoolmaster here for five years before that.
A: Have there been a lot of changes during this time?
B: Yes, quite. We live in a time of rapid changes. It’s especially true about education.
A: Could you be more specific?
B: Take Southwark College. Ten years ago it was an ordinary comprehensive school. Then the local authorities decided that this area needed a sixth form college and we began taking in only sixteen-year-olds. Consequently, some of the teaching staff had to leave and others had to be employed instead.
A: What other changes can you mention?
B: Over recent years we’ve introduced a number of completely new subjects — Information technology, Ecological education, Psychology and others. We did it because universities demand these subjects nowadays.
A: What is your most pressing problem at the moment?
B: Well... It’s hard to say. In fact, I could mention more than one. Personally I feel very deeply about the fact that the number of pupils in Southwark College is getting less over the years. A couple of years ago we had classes of about 20—25 pupils. Now we are happy if we have 15.
A: Mr Douglas, what were your school years like?
B: Well, they were fun and they were a lot of work. We had five working days a week and all of them were strictly structured.
A: Was there no school on Saturday?
B: No, no lessons on Saturday but we often came to school on Saturday mornings or afternoons as many of us were involved with sports competitions, drama performances and other activities, all of them voluntary, of course. I remember I personally liked having school on Saturdays.
A: How were you organized in school?
B: My school was a single-sex boarding school. In the first five years of secondary schooling we were all in forms of about 20—25 boys but there were only three of us in the sixth form.
A: Did you have a broad curriculum while at school, Mr Douglas?
B: It was characteristic of the first three or four years of studies. During my last years at school I specialized in three subjects; Computer Technology was one of them.
A: Was there setting in your school?
B: There was some setting in Modern Languages.
A: Did you sit for any exams to become a pupil?
B: Yes, I did. Usually there are many candidates who sit for entrance examinations.
A: Miss Carter, could you please tell us how you started teaching?
B: You know, I wouldn’t have thought of this career at all but for my aunt. Aunt Julia was a primary school teacher and had a lot of experience with children. We, the members of her family, were always involved in her school problems and I began helping her which I loved.
A: Tell me where were you trained, please?
B: I was a student of Birmingham teacher-training college; I graduated from it in 2013.
A: So, you have been in the profession for only a few years. Do you think the primary pupils have changed since the days of your childhood?
B: They have and they haven’t. Now they feel free to decide, speak and to act. The majority of them are more relaxed and independent and yet they are often the same sort of girls and boys as we used to be in their attitude to good and bad, to right and wrong.
A: Can we say that the younger generation is much brighter in their studies?
B: I wouldn’t say that. I think they are very well-informed in many things but in my opinion they read less, they spend more time in virtual reality and not in real life. On the one hand they are aggressively fast and on the other hand they are often vulnerable and helpless in quite ordinary matters. I don’t think they are better or worse, they are just different.
A: Excuse me, are you Mrs Armstrong? Have you got a minute?
B: Yes. How can I help you?
A: I’m Mary Hunt from the New School magazine. I understand that your children are going to Kensington High School.
B: Yes, both my daughters are at Kensington High.
A: May I ask you a few questions as I’m writing an article on London schools?
B: All right. What is it you’d like to know?
A: I wonder if you are satisfied with the standard of schooling here?
B: I’m quite pleased with the progress my girls are making. Ruth, my elder, is planning to do Modern Languages at London University. At Kensington High she is learning French and Spanish. This year they have also started doing Chinese. If Ruth gets good A Level results, the university will be happy to have her as a student.
A: Is there anything you don’t like about this school?
B: You know, I feel rather critical about the discipline here. I think that the girls get too much freedom. If I were to decide, I would make the six- formers wear school uniforms like all the other pupils do. I would also make them work harder.
A: Really? A lot of parents think that their children are overworked at schools and have very little time to themselves.
B: I’m not one of them. I’ve always believed that the harder you work when you’re young, the better start you get for your professional career.
A: Thank you very much for your time.
Script 4 to Exercise 2. Listen to the text “School Report” and mark the aspects in which John has improved his French.
John’s introduction to the new subject — the French language — was not very successful at the beginning, I am afraid. He didn’t show much enthusiasm about the foreign language he was learning. He showed little interest in the culture and history of France too. He seemed very much bored when in class and what is more he often missed his classes. But with time he got used to the unusual melody of the language and even began to put some effort in what he was doing. His assignments have much improved. Even his handwriting has become readable. He has achieved much progress in spelling and grammar trying to check his tasks thoroughly. John’s results for the term final test have appeared unexpectedly far from poor. He made very few bad mistakes which I could qualify as errors. On the whole John’ s achievements in French have become really satisfactory if not better. He definitely understood that one cannot succeed without studying.
Script 5 to Exercise 1. Listen to the dialogues and answer the questions.
A: Hello, I’m Robert Taylor. I work for The Neighbour, our local newspaper.
B: Hello, Robert. Nice to meet you. I’m Kate Morris. It’s me who called your office and asked you to come over.
A: Well, I understand that you’re opening a new boutique and want me to write about it.
B: Yes, Robert. That would be a very good advertisement for our shop. I hope that a lot of people in the neighbourhood will learn about it from your newspaper.
A: Well, may I look at the shop and ask you some questions?
B: This way, please. You see it’s quite a small place but it’s cosy. This is our main shopping area. We’ve put the racks with ready-made clothes closer to the walls and left the middle of the room empty. It gives the customers more space.
A: Are you going to sell only clothes here?
B: No, not only. In the two smaller rooms on both sides of the main area we are going to sell perfume and underwear.
A: But, Kate, there are other shops of this kind in the street and a big store round the corner.
B: Yes, but this one will be different. We are going to sell only elegant and expensive things here. It’s going to be an exquisite boutique for an exclusive public.
A: It’s Saturday today and we are here to discuss the question of wearing a uniform as a must in our school. Our principal and the teaching staff would like our opinion on the matter. What’s your point of view, Bob?
B: I don’t think it’s a good idea. When everyone wears the same clothes, you look like everybody does and you can’t express your individuality. Would you agree, Celia?
C: I’m not so sure. Certainly, it is boring to wear the same things every day, and the uniform doesn’t usually create any cheerful atmosphere in the classroom as the clothes are usually of dull colours — grey, blue or brown. But the uniform helps discipline and unites us. You have a feeling of belonging, of sharing something with the others.
B: You may be right here, Celia, but tastes differ. Your uniform, its cut and colour, won’t necessarily be becoming, and you’ll have to wear the same thing you don’t like, even hate for many years.
C: Yes, Bob, that’s a disadvantage. And we’ll have to accept it. But the advantage is obvious. We won’t stand out, we won’t envy those who have something very smart and stylish.
A: Now, don’t argue, just listen to me.
C: Yes, Alice.
A: Don’ t you think it would be a good idea to find out what the others think through an opinion poll?
A: May I help you?
B: Yes, I’d like to open an account at this branch.
A: What kind of account would you like?
B: A savings account.
A: Very good. Every savings account holder gets a five per cent interest yearly, a bank card free. I’d advise Visa or Master Card.
B: That suits me very well. May I ask you a few questions?
A: Certainly. This is what I’m here for — to answer your questions.
B: Thank you. How much money must I pay in to open the account?
A: A mere token sum — five or ten pounds.
B: Good. Can I arrange for some payments to be made straight from my account? I’ d like to pay for my university education through my bank account.
A: Nothing could be easier. We’ll see to it as soon as we have completed some formalities. May I ask you to fill out this form and sign it?
B: Right. Let me see... Name, address, occupation... Here you are. And here is ten pounds as my initial payment.
A: Thank you. We’ll send you your card as soon as it’s ready. Usually it takes about a week or a little longer. We also send our account holders their statements every month for you to know your balance.
B: Thank you. I’ll be expecting to hear from you soon. Goodbye.
A: Hello. This is five-three-eight-seven-eight-nine — Roger Farber speaking.
B: Hello, Mr Farber. My name is Tom Westwood. I’m interested in your car. Is it still for sale?
A: Yes, it is. Would you like to buy it?
B: Well, perhaps. What make is it?
A: It is a Ford, Ford Mustang. One of the most popular makes on the market.
B: How long have you had it?
A: Oh, I’ve had it for a few years. I used to drive every day when I was working. I don’t drive it now.
B: Yes, but when exactly was it made?
A: In 1995. But I’ve looked after it very well. I think it’s in a pretty good condition.
B: How much do you want for that?
A: Four thousand pounds. And it’s a bargain. The car is all in good working order. What do you think?
B: I would like to have a look at the car, Mr Farber. What time is convenient for you?
A: I’m always at home after five.
B: Will Thursday, 6 p.m. be convenient?
A: Yes, quite.
B: Agreed then. Thursday at six. Bye, Mr Farber, and thank you.
A: Goodbye, Mr Westwood. Till Thursday, then.
Script 6 to Exercise 2. Listen to the text “Vicky’s Monologue” and complete the phrases after it choosing the appropriate items (a—d).
— I seem to be spending a lot of money lately, I think it’s time I stopped being so wasteful and put some money in the bank. This is really a very wise strategy. But when you come to think it over in detail, you can’t find the spot or the item where you can reduce your spendings. For example, I bought these shoes in the sales. I can’t say I needed the pair badly but they were really a bargain. So in fact I saved a lot with the help of the purchase. But alas, no money at the moment, and I had always dreamt of buying a small car. Just a common make, not very expensive. I could buy an old car in fact. There are usually so many for sale. But to do this I should put aside some money each week. Alas, the more I try the less I succeed. I buy things actually for nothing and I’ve got a very good salary but when I’m in a shop and see something which sells at a low price, I just can’t help buying it. I know that I must economize a bit and I’m doing my best but if you see that, you can make a bargain, how can you resist? I’m not a shopaholic, but go to the shop rather often, at least twice or three times a week. And there are usually numerous sales in town. You simply can’t keep from visiting them. But what about my car?
Script 7 to Exercise 1. Listen to the dialogues and decide which of the following statements are true, false or not stated.
A: When were the first computers built?
B: I’m not quite sure. I think in the middle of the previous century. Let’s look it up in the encyclopaedia. Mm... Yes, that’s right. They were built in the 1950s and they were huge, they filled entire rooms.
A: How much did they cost then, being so big?
B: They were very expensive indeed, millions of dollars, not less.
A: How effectively did they work? Were they fast?
B: Not very. The earliest computers solved less than a thousand problems each second. For comparison, today, the world’s fastest computers can solve a hundred million problems in a second.
A: Wow! Computers have really changed a lot. Since the day they appeared they have become smaller, cheaper and faster.
B: True. And scientists are working to make them even faster. But most important of all, computers are costing less. Very small computers cost only a few hundred dollars.
A: Our Biology teacher asked the class a question, which no one could answer.
B: Really? What was the question?
A: It was about a man called Hippocrates.
B: Hippocrates of Ancient Greece... He is often called the father of medicine.
A: Why? Did he invent medicine... or medicines?
B: Not really. Even in prehistoric times there existed people who could cure an illness with a potion of plant juices and do some other things to help a sick person, but Hippocrates was one of the first proficient doctors. He tried to rid medicine of magic, and make it more scientific.
A: I think, I’ve heard something about the Hippocratic oath. What is it?
B: The Hippocratic oath is a promise to try to save life and to follow the standards set in the medical profession.
A: Was Hippocrates the first man who gave that oath?
B: No, not really. This oath was named after him.
B: Because he taught medical people one very important thing: he taught them that a doctor’s main aim was to help the patient, by finding the cause of an illness, and treating it. Hippocrates’ main ideas are still followed today.
A: They showed a UFO on TV last night. Do you believe in UFOs?
B: I do. I think that humans are not the only intelligent life form in the universe.
A: So you think that aliens visit Earth. Why don’t they come to contact with us then?
B: I think, they don’t want to interfere. They just watch our civilization develop. It may be one huge experiment...
A: I don’t know... It’s so strange... Why can’t scientists prove that aliens and UFOs exist or prove that they don’t exist?
B: I think that aliens, whoever they are, are trying to keep us at a distance, so they do their best not to give scientists any evidence of their visits.
A: Shall we never learn the truth?
B: I hope we will. Ufologists all over the world have become very active. They use hi-tech equipment to measure magnetic effects which might be caused by UFOs, and track mysterious craft on radar screens.
A: Where do UFOs come from?
B: Most ufologists believe that aliens visit Earth from distant galaxies. No other planet in our solar system can support life, so UFOs must come from planets orbiting another star like our Sun. Human science and technology are not yet advanced enough to find them.
A: And what will you do if you saw a UFO or if aliens appeared on the doorstep of your house?
B: I would try to show them that I’m a friend. And you?
A: Me? Oh... I think I would try to run away.
A: Anaesthetics are drugs which are among the miracles of modern medicine.
B: I can’t agree more. They are real miracles which make it possible for operations to be carried out painlessly.
A: Yes, before anaesthetics were used, even the most minor operations could be very painful. You have only to look at early drawings of people having teeth pulled out to realize how lucky we are today.
B: Before the only way of deadening the pain of the knife was to get the patient very drunk on alcohol or to use opium. Today we could not imagine even a very small operation without anaesthetic.
A: How can modern anaesthetics be given to patients now?
B: In various ways: by injection or as a gas to breathe. A general anaesthetic makes the patient unconscious. When a patient gets a local anaesthetic, he remains awake, but doesn’t feel any pain in some part of the body.
A: Is it true that absolutely different gases are used as anaesthetics?
B: Quite so. In recent years, many new anaesthetics gases have been developed. All have a pleasant smell and ensure that a patient can quickly return to his senses.
Script 8 to Exercise 2. Listen to the text “Computers Today” and say what is missing in the list.
Today, computers help people to do many things they couldn’t do alone. Bankers use them to keep track of money. Without computers, weather forecasts would make more mistakes. The list of uses is long. Computers help companies keep records, doctors treat sick people and scientists solve problems.
The computer is a very useful tool. Like any tool, it helps people to do things better. Computers are fast and accurate. They don’t get bored or tired, they can be worked around the clock. Nowadays people depend on computers so much that they sometimes think the machines are giant brains. Compared to people, however, computers aren’t so intelligent. They are machines that will do only what they are told to. It’s people who decide which facts to put into the computer. People have to plan the program that tells the computer what to do with the facts. And people have to interpret and use the information that comes out of it.
Script 9 to Exercise 1. Listen to the conversations and choose the right items to complete the sentences.
A: Good morning, sir. How can I help you?
B: My wife and I would like to spend our summer holidays travelling in Europe.
A: Excellent! What countries would you like to visit?
B: In fact, we would prefer to combine travelling with staying at some seaside resort. So we were thinking about the south of Europe.
A: There is a choice of tours I can offer you. You can make a tour of France, Spain and Portugal and stay in Costa Brava not far from Barcelona in Spain.
B: You know we’ve been to Spain a couple of times. Could we make it of Greece or Italy?
A: Certainly, sir! That’ s a very good idea. There are lots of good seaside hotels both in Italy and in Greece.
B: Well, what would you recommend?
A: You could travel about France and Italy for a week and then stay for another week in Xenia Lagonissi — a very comfortable five-star holiday spot just 40 km from the centre of Athens.
B: That sounds good. Will we be able to travel about Greece?
A: If you drive, you can rent a car and see the country on your own or join some of the tours arranged by the holiday centre.
B: Great. Now, what places can we see in France and Italy?
A: We can offer you an individual tour and then you’ll be able to choose the places. It’s very convenient but more expensive. Another possibility is to join a package tour, which is much cheaper. Here are the routes we offer in our travel agency.
A: Rose, is that you? Sarah Jones is calling.
B: Yes, Sarah. How are you, dear?
A: I’m fine. I hope you’re well too.
B: Yes, Sarah, quite well, thanks.
A: Rose, I’m planning to visit Stratford in July and stay there for a couple of days. I was wondering if you could send me some information about suitable accommodation?
B: Certainly, Sarah. I’ll gladly do that. What would you like to know?
A: I would like to stay at some hotel that is not very expensive but is not very far from the city centre either. Would you also find out what the price is and what is included in the price?
B: Yes, Sarah. But you shouldn’t bother about the location. Stratford is not a very big city. So wherever the hotel is, it is not very far from the city centre. You can walk or take a bus if it is located in the suburbs. But I would like you to tell me some particulars.
A: Certainly, Rose. What are they?
B: First of all, do you want a single? Would you like an air-conditioned room? Should there be a bathroom?
A: No, Rose. These things are not absolutely necessary. But I would like a single, yes. Lastly, Rose, could you find out what services the hotel provides for its guests?
B: Right. And I’ll call you back at the end of the week.
A: Wonderful. Thanks a lot. See you.
B: See you soon, dear. Looking forward to meeting you.
A: Dear viewers! Today I’m privileged to welcome in this studio a very special guest. It’s legendary Harris Perry. Good evening, Mr Perry.
B: Good evening.
A: Mr Perry, you’ve just completed an unprecedented experiment: you’ve crossed the Atlantic alone in a small sailing boat. What gave you the idea of doing this?
B: I haven’t been the first man to do it. There’s some evidence showing that even in prehistoric times people crossed the Atlantic in their small boats.
A: Yes, but you made your voyage alone. What was the greatest difficulty for you?
B: Well... Controlling the boat day and night without anyone helping you is hard enough, but the worst thing was to know that there are no humans miles and miles around.
A: What helped you to stick it out?
B: I had a radio and a satellite telephone and I regularly spoke to my friends and my family.
A: I know that you have a wife and two sons. Do they share your enthusiasm about taking such dangerous voyages?
B: My wife knows that I can’t live without the ocean and doesn’t protest any more. Though I guess it’s not easy for her either. As for my sons, I hope they are proud of me, besides they are beginning to share my interest in sailing boats. This summer we’re planning to cross the North Sea together.
A: Mr Scott, my husband and I are going to Oxford on business for at least a week. I hope we’ll have some free time and would gladly do the city. What would you recommend for us to see?
B: Oxford is a beautiful city. The university gardens and the parks and fields around the river make its centre a surprisingly green place. If the weather is good, you can just walk through the narrow old streets between the university buildings and around the Botanic Garden.
A: We didn’t know there is a Botanic Garden in Oxford!
B: There is. It is the oldest in Britain. It was laid in 1621 and is very beautiful. Another way to see Oxford is from one of the many open-top buses.
A: Yes, we may have a guided tour of the city. I also know that many people especially tourists like using punts.
B: True. You can enjoy the river from a punt. In the old days people used these boats to carry passengers and animals down the river, but now students and tourists use them.
A: Are there any museums in Oxford?
B: Yes. Oxford has some of Britain’s finest museums: the Museum of the History of Science, the University Museum, the Museum of Modern Art.
A: Any modern shopping centres in Oxford?
B: The old and the new are side by side in Oxford. You can visit modern shopping centres or the smaller shops in the old streets. I would advise you to visit the Covered Market in the centre of the city. It is an old food market built in 1774. Today it sells meat, fish, vegetables, flowers and other things. It is very picturesque.
Script 10 to Exercise 2. Listen to the text “Australia” and match the names of Australian animals with their characteristics.
Firstly, Australia is big, it is the biggest island in the world. In fact, only five countries in the world are larger than Australia. Secondly, Australia is low and flat; it is hot and dry, too. In the west and the centre the average temperature is often 35°C above zero in the summer months. In some parts of Australia it sometimes does not rain for years. And a lot of it is empty.
This enormous country has only about seventeen million people, and most of them live in the south and southeast parts of the country.
If you want to see extraordinary animals, birds and plants, Australia is a good place to go. The kangaroo is one Australian animal that everybody knows. The biggest of the fifty different kinds is the red kangaroo. They can jump more than four metres and travel at seventy kilometres an hour. Kangaroos eat grass and leaves and live in groups about twelve.
Everyone loves the sleepy grey koalas. Like kangaroos, they have a kind of pocket on their fronts for their babies. It is called a pouch. Baby koalas spend the first six months of their lives in the pouch and after six months there, they ride on their mother’s back. They live in eucalyptus trees, sleeping for eighteen hours and eating one kilo of leaves each day. They drink almost nothing. The word KOALA means “no water”.
In the seas and rivers of northern Australia you can find crocodiles that are five or six metres long. They eat fish, animals, kangaroos — and sometimes people.
Finally, two very strange animals — the echidna and the platypus. Their babies are born from eggs but drink milk from their mothers; no other animals in the world do this. The echidna eats ants, which it catches with its long fast tongue. The platypus has a wide bill like a duck’s and a wide flat tail. It swims well, but it can only stay under water for a few minutes, and it shuts its eyes and ears first.
The dingo is Australia’s native dog. It’s thought to have arrived in Australia around 6 000 years ago, and was domesticated by Aboriginal people. It differs from the domestic dog in that it howls rather than barks and breeds only once a year rather than two.
There are more than eight hundred kinds of birds in Australia. The emu, which is two metres tall, is the second largest bird in the world. It cannot fly at all, but it can run at fifty kilometres an hour. Then there is the kookaburra, whose cry sounds like someone laughing.
Script 11 to Exercise 1. Listen to the interviews and write answers to the questions.
A: Mr Amis, may I ask you a question connected with your profession of a journalist?
B: Certainly. Go ahead.
A: I must confess that I don’t know much about British periodicals. I’ve heard names like The Times or The Daily Mirror, but what are they like?
B: If you are interested in The Times, I can say that this respectable paper was founded as early as in 1785 by a man called John Walter.
A: Really? I knew it was an old paper, but to think that it was started in the 18th century...
B: Anyhow, it’s a fact. Only in 1785 the paper was known under a different name. In those days it was called The Daily Universal Register.
A: And when did the paper receive its present name?
B: Very soon afterwards. In 1788. During the 19th century the paper became the unofficial voice of the government.
A: Is The Times financed by the government?
B: No. In fact, it may be interesting for you to know that in 1966 it was bought by Lord Thompson and later on the newspaper changed hands again.
A: It’s very interesting indeed. Does The Times concentrate only on politics?
B: It has a big section devoted to business and finance and some other sections too. I know that you are a lover of books. That’s why you might wish to look through The Times Literary Supplement. It was established in 1902 and since then it’s been publishing book reviews and literary criticism.
A: Thanks for your advice. I think it’s a brilliant idea.
A: Mr Berry, I work for People’s Friend. We are trying to find out what people think about fast food.
B: It’s common knowledge that it’s cheap, easy to get and quick. They say the average American eats three burgers and four orders of French fries a week.
A: So, fast food seems to have become very popular. Yet, a lot of people say that America has a problem with fast food. As an expert, do you think there is something wrong with fast food?
B: It’s fine to eat fast food occasionally as part of a healthy diet. But fast food is high in fat and calories. So if your favourite meal is a burger and fries, you could easily become obese. Statistics says that 14% of American teenagers are obese, in other words extremely fat.
A: Is obesity dangerous?
B: It certainly is. Obesity could lead to other diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases and arthritis.
A: But there’s no escape from fast food for American teens. It is advertised everywhere, even in schools.
B: True. Fast food companies give money to our schools to help them buy sports and computer equipment. In return, schools place advertisements for fast food in their hallways and on the sides of school buses.
A: They also sell cheap fast food in school cafeterias, and on special education days talk to students. Don’t you think something has to be done?
B: Something is already being done. Now America is starting to fight back against the fast food companies. The two biggest states in the US, California and Texas, might stop serving fast food and soda in school cafeterias. The American government may bring in special laws for preventing and treating obesity.
A: Mrs Barrymore, I work for our local newspaper. This is my first interview. I’ m a bit nervous.
B: You shouldn’t be. I’ll gladly answer your questions.
A: School years are often called “the best years of our lives”. They really can be great, but physical and mental health surveys also show that teens nowadays are far more stressed than they were ten years ago.
B: Unfortunately, that is true. And the major problem is workload, the amount of work students have to do. A lot of them cannot cope with all their homework, they often feel they are falling behind with their schoolwork and can’t catch up.
A: Is this the only problem?
B: Certainly not. Many teens report being more stressed by the school environment than the schoolwork.
A: The school environment?
B: Yes. A lot of them say they are worried regularly about being attacked, some have seen or been victims of robbery, or physical attacks. They may also have fears about popularity.
A: Mrs Barrymore, I have a friend whose daughter works part-time jobs in the evening. Though this helps financially, the kid gets tired and it makes stress worse.
B: You’re right. A lot of them work these days and not only during vacations. Then I should also mention after-school and before-school activities such as sport and drama. They add to the length of the student’s day and to their stress.
A: Do you see any possible way out?
B: I think teachers and educationists should be taught to budget their time and certainly stay more in the open air.
A: I hear that you’re at university now. Take my congratulations.
B: Thank you very much. I’m so happy. I’ve been dreaming of it for so long.
A: Do you mean you chose your future career long ago?
B: Yes, I did. Since the time my father took me to the TV studio with him, I’ve wanted to be a TV journalist.
A: I’m sure you’ll look great on the television screen.
B: You’re pulling my leg, aren’t you?
A: No, no. I mean it.
B: In fact, if my wish comes true, I’ ll be one of those who work behind the screen. I hope to write scripts for television.
A: A scriptwriter? Not a newscaster? Not a show host?
B: I think that scriptwriting is the greatest fun. I can create new programmes for television. Can you keep a secret?
A: My lips are sealed.
B: I have a great idea. I am already writing a script for an unprecedented programme.
A: Are you? You are kidding.
B: No, I am not. I’ve called it “Great Mystery Tour” and I’m going to offer it to the television.
A: Wow! Tell me everything. What is it going to be like?
Script 12 to Exercise 2. Listen to the interview with an American schoolboy and match the answers with the questions the journalist asked.
1. The American school year isn’t very long. There are two semesters and each semester has two marking periods. At the end of every marking period we have a report card from our teachers.
2. American students are lucky because there are many holidays and vacations in the school year. We have two weeks for spring vacation, two weeks for Christmas vacation and three months for summer vacation.
3. We have four years of high school — freshman, sophomore, junior and senior year. In the first two years of high school, the teachers give you exams to test your English and Math. The exams aren’t difficult but there are a lot of them! There aren’t many tests in the junior and senior years. That’s good because we need time to write applications for college.
4. I don’t think that American school life is very hard. Each student has even classes, but you can’t choose which classes you have until you are in the junior year.
5. Not many of my classes are exciting, but I like journalism and psychology. They are a lot of fun.
6. We have a lot of freedom at school. We don’t have to wear uniforms — only students in private schools have to wear uniforms.
7. We can’t take personal stereos or headphones to school and we can’t chew gum.